End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) is the level of carbon dioxide released at the end of expiration. ETCO2 levels reflect the adequacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood being carried back to the lungs and exhaled. capnography monitoring devices is currently the most widely recommended method for monitoring ETCO2.
Capnography monitoring devices are configured for side stream or main stream. In the lateral flow configuration, the CO2 sensor is located in the monitoring device at a distance from the patient. Exhaled CO2 is transferred from the airway into the device through a 6- to 8-foot sampling tube that connects to a breathing circuit mounted on the patient. In the case of the mainstream configuration, the CO2 sensor and sampling unit are integrated into a small device that connects directly between the airway, breathing circuit and endotracheal tube (ETT). Lateral flow devices can monitor both intubated and non-intubated patients, whereas mainstream devices are often limited to intubated patients. Lateral flow measurement has been the most common type of ET CO2 measurement mode in Canadian facilities, even though many new, innovative and ultra-portable mainstream capnography monitoring devices are becoming available. Whether sidestream or mainstream, capnography monitoring devices can be used as hand-held portable devices or as modules or components integrated into other medical devices such as defibrillators, anesthesia machines, and patient monitoring systems.
By using capnography monitoring devices, the patient's ventilation status can be monitored in real time. Healthcare providers are able to identify potential respiratory complications (eg, airway obstruction, hyperventilation, hypoventilation, or apnea) and respond accordingly (eg, provide supplemental oxygen or reassess the patient) based on changes in clinical management ). Early detection of problems facilitates timely intervention when adverse respiratory events occur, which can help avoid worsening to a more serious or fatal point.
ETCO2 monitoring using capnography monitoring devices has been used in several hospital and pre-hospital settings, and the technology is in different stages of use depending on the clinical field. For decades, anesthesiologists have used capnography to monitor ETCO2 in patients undergoing general anesthesia. Monitoring devices can help prevent or reduce adverse events such as undetected respiratory depression and hypoxia.
capnography monitoring devices is also used to monitor the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cardiac arrest patients; for continuous monitoring of emergency room and ICU patients; during mobile transport; and to confirm proper ETT placement.