Capnography device is an instrument for monitoring arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure. The commonly used methods for sustainable non-invasive monitoring of PaCO2 are end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring and transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring. According to the monitoring method, it can be divided into end-tidalCO2 graph equipmentand transcutaneousCO2 graph equipment.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a by-product of cell metabolism. It is transported by blood to the lungs where it is eliminated. Thus, measuring exhaled CO2 can evaluate metabolism, cardiovascular system, and respiratory system. In addition, as the function of the anesthesia circuit is to prevent CO2from beingbreathed in, measuring inhaledCO2 can also evaluate the anesthesia machine.
Capnography device measures theCO2in the air that the patient inhales and exhales. These devices also provide values for respiratory rate. The terms "CO2 graph" and "CO2 measurement" are sometimes considered synonymous, even though they refer to two different devices. A CO2 monitor is a device that measures only CO2 and does not provide continuous recording.CO2 graph equipmentis a device that measures CO2 with continuous recording, usually in waveform form.
Most devices provide waveforms that show changes in CO2 partial pressure over time in the air. Some devices only give the end-tidal CO2 partial pressure value(ETCO2). Waveform analysis is important because it can identify problems with the machine (leaks, malfunctioning valves, etc.) or the patient (respiratory obstruction, asthma, non-functional cavities, etc.). It can also be used to adjust the oxygen flow when using a Bain circuit or checking if the lime is exhausted. Finally, if the waveform is abnormal, ETCO2 and respiratory rate values may be incorrect.
The advantages of capnography device are: non-invasive; fast and easy to use; continuous monitoring; monitoring ventilation, circulation, and metabolism.
Inadequate ventilation is one of the common risks under anesthesia. Human medical research shows that using a pulse oximeter and CO2 graph can prevent up to 93% of anesthesia-related complications. CO2 monitor is fast and easy to use. It should be placed immediately after tube insertion in any case. It should continue to be used until the patient recovers and the tube is removed.Continuous monitoring of waveforms and ETCO2 values is also important. In anesthetized patients, ETCO2 between 35 and 45 mmHg is considered normal (if the waveform is normal).